Required Reading

iminhell

Fallout Shelter For Sale
In an effort to create a better educated, more informed user base I think it's a good idea if we all get on the same page.

To participate you must post a link to some relevant information, if you don't I'll ask your post be removed. This is intended to be an information thread more so than a Q & A thread.


First I suppose it's best we get the basics of what an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE for short) is and it's purpose out of the way. I'll post more in-depth links as I go along.



Though simplistic, that is one of the better articles on the basics and well worth your time to read it, weather you are an 'expert' or not.

http://auto.howstuffworks.com/engine.htm


So you should have a very basic idea of how things work. You should know that there is no 'explosion' in an engine, it's a predictable pressure rise ensuing from the arc created by the spark plug. 'Explosions' are what detonation can be considered and in worst case scenarios will destroy an engine very quickly.
Before we get into too much math and physics lets get the mechanicals out of the way.



Construction Materials

Engine blocks are either made from variations of Cast Iron or variations of Aluminum and Aluminum alloy. Both have good point and bad. Cast Iron is stronger and has higher ware resistance but Aluminum is lighter and dissipates heat faster. Though Aluminum alloys have come a long way and there is more technology in the way of bracing the Aluminum block vs the big chunk of Iron in the old days.
Crankshafts are made from Nodular Cast Iron or Steel, but as you may find out reading on your own, these are just generalized names. The actual content of the metal can and does vary.
Connecting rods are made of Steel alloys or variants of Aluminum alloys. There are 3 basic methods of making them; cast, forged or machined.
Pistons are Aluminum alloys. Again there are various methods of production; cast, forged or machined.
I'll get into specifics later on.

*this is a section I could use some help on*

Best I can do for now is direct you to a few books with non specif information (seems you'll have to buy or see if the library has, I can't find them free online)

The Science and Technology of Materials in Automotive Engines
Fundamentals of Metallurgy



Engine Balancing

In a perfect world with a perfect running engine you'd not even know it was there. It would run very smooth and there would be no vibration passed on to the passengers. The only way you'd know it was there is when your right foot gets heavy and you stomp the accelerator. The torque of the engine would rock the motor and you'd feel a slight jarring. But we are not in a perfect world and every factory assembled engine is a series of compromises.

Engine Balance Part I
Engine Balance Part II
Engine Balance Part III
Engine Balance Part IV
Engine Balance Part V
Engine balance Part VI



OK. Now on to some basics on how to make more power, just keep in mind that you don't always have to add new shinny parts to make more power. You must always keep in mind that there can be benefits to optimizing what you already have, nobody ever said we have a performance car right off the bat. Remember cars are a series of compromises.


Now the number one place you will always get more power from is the cylinder head. It houses all the vital parts that control how much power you can or cannot make. Everything from the surface finish to the shapes and angles of the head matter and have some effect on power.

First off, Porting.

(If I find porting school #1 it'll go here)
Porting School #2
Porting School #3
Porting School #4
Porting School #5
Porting School #6
Porting School #7
Porting School #8
Porting School #9
Porting School #10


OK. So now you understand a bit about making ports bigger or smaller and that it isn't about size, it's about shape and keeping air speed manageable and predictable. But we have to get air in and out also, so we have to look at the intake manifold and exhaust manifold. Both work on the same principals and are subject to the same flow principals, fluid dynamics (air is a fluid).


Intake & Exhaust

Helmholtz Resonance
Intake manifold tuning
Exhaust manifold design
Book covering the science behind both intake and exhaust


The Camshaft

The Cam Design handbook
Simple cam explanation
Camshaft design science



So you got air flowing well into the engine and out of it, what about the air as it's compressed in the combustion chamber. Surely we can't neglect that part, and we won't by any means. Combustion is the make or break point of any engine. Poor mixture and lack of homogeneity can cause hot spots, misfires, pre-ignition and general poor performance. So it's not something you want to take lightly. Everything in the engine leads up to and hinges on this one event.


Combustion

Wet flow bench
Cylinder Pressure based combustion
Combustion turbulence


There is a myriad of information relating to combustion dynamics and modeling. I've only posted a very slim number to give you terms to search on your own. I've also saved some in my Google Books account and my Scribd account (which I'm not sure on how to link to):
Google Books account
 

iminhell

Fallout Shelter For Sale
Years and years of reading. I've got an 80Gig HDD full of research papers, books, literature on different engine related stuff I've DL'd over the years.
Always looking for more, lol.
 

picsbypenny

Lord Save-a-Ho II
Years and years of reading. I've got an 80Gig HDD full of research papers, books, literature on different engine related stuff I've DL'd over the years.
Always looking for more, lol.
hahah i didnt know what half this shit was, i just knew it worked together when i help my buddy work on his bracket car
 

Tyler

GTO's suck
bout time your name is green iminhell... you really should have been the first.

thanks for the great info, ill be going over it in the next few days.
 

Havok

\{o_O}/ (@[email protected]) \[O_o]/
Very nice, I've been putting together a Master Turbo FAQ here and there for the last couple months, I'll have to finish it up to match the master nitrous faq in this section.
 

rwhockey29

Town Bicycle of Car Ownership
Awesome thread! I'll be reading all of these articles.

I've got a few things bookmarked on my computer at home. I'll update my post with links for reading when I get home
 

Speedanimal

Active Member
Tons of juicy info there, learning stuff that I thought I knew, but I really didn't.

The porting school pages won't open for me, all come up as errors, just to let somebody know.

It's funny how stuff you would probably never think of is a major topic in making power and having a successful engine. Thanks for all the info!
 

magnum9987

Member
I think you should add a little spiel on the importance of the exhaust heres a good link. NVM, I'm a noob so no links from me.
 

J. Fast

Active Member
Air combined with fuel is what makes power, and it doesn't necessarily have to come from porting. It can be produced from an assisted air pump, ie supercharger or turbocharger. It can come from added oxygen molecules in fuels, and it can be increased by changes in displacement.

Air and fuel are completely dependent on one another as you can't have have one ingredient and not the other to generate power.

The number one place to generate expensive and high maint power is nitrous. The most efficient way to generate power is by adding an engine assisted air pump to compress air molecules into a tighter configuration hense increasing the airmass volumer or "density" ratio of air filling each cylinder.

The density multiplication effect of air ratio on a turbo charger can easily double, triple, and even quadruple the standard airmass flow rate of an engine meaning a 3.0 Litre engine with a 3.0 density ratio turbo will flow the equivalent airmass of a 12Litre engine. Move that much air and you will discover something called BSAC, or brake specific air consumption which moves proportionally with BSFC, brake specific fuel consumption.

Porting valves and so forth is just a matter of fluid mechanics. Think of the valves as cups. Take your standard small glass cup in the kitchen and fill it with water. Now imagine you did headwork and you increased the valve diameter so reach into the cabinet and grab a bigger cup and fill it with water. If you had a faucet that was flowing a constant rate it would take the same amount of time to displace the same volume of water for both except one would be full before the other hense you would have to pour it out before the other was filled. Porting generates more power because your filling and pouring larger cups at the same RPM rate as the smaller cups. If you had (16) one ounce cups (valves in this case) moving fluid (which in this case is actually air) at 1000rpms you would effectively move 16000 ounces of water in 1 minute . Now change those cups to 2 ounce cups (a larger diameter valve in this case) and speed them to 1000rpms. Pouring bigger cups would net moving twice the amount of air.

So now lets talk about effortless power...

What happens if suddenly we change the liquid density of the fluid filling our cups. Make them lighter and less dense and you require less fuel to combust. Make them heavier and more dense and you require more fuel to combust. Again, for simple illustration valves just move cups at a constant. The real power comes from the density ratio of the air in the cups... and the effortless power comes from airpumps like superchargers and turbochargers.

Think about how much fuel would be required if the cups were displacing the equivalent density ratio of air as a 6.0 GTO engine and then that was fed into a 3.0litre engine. The power is in the mechanical advantage of the comperssors on airpumps over any ported head, every day of the week. Head just move volume, they can't change airmass density... objects that can have the mechanical advantage and the laws of physics on their side... :)

Haven't posted in a few months guys...

Hopefully this helps the cause.

Jeremy
 
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